Wednesday, May 20, 2020

Emerald Ash Borer Tree Damage

Adult emerald ash borer or agrilus planipennis with open wing covers

Prevent your ash tree from becoming an ecological hazard and infested by the emerald ash borer. By knowing how to confirm an infestation and who to call, you can protect surrounding trees and help in the effort to contain this tree-killing insect.

72tree.com gathered information on and how to identify an emerald ash borer infestation, how to protect surrounding trees, and when to remove your ash tree.

Emerald Ash Borer Information

The Emerald Ash borer (Agrilus planipennis) is native to eastern Asia. It is a species of beetle that completes its life cycle by going through four distinct stages:

Eggs – This borer’s eggs are laid in clusters on ash tree bark and are very small at 1/25 of an inch, and reddish-brown.

Larvae – Growing to about an inch long, larvae are white, flat, and have a segmented body. This borer’s larvae feed on the cambium and phloem of its host under the bark, leaving S-shaped tunnels or galleries as they feed. Emerald ash borers in the larval stage are responsible for the damage that leads to the eventual hydraulic failure and death of the host tree.

Pupae – In this form, the beetle is transitioning to adulthood and does not feed.

Adult – Adults are about 3/8 to 5/8 of an inch long with metallic, bright green outer wing coverings. The adult emerald ash borer has a coppery red or purplish colored abdomen that is exposed when its wing coverings are lifted. Adults will fly up to a half-mile or more to find new ash trees to nest in. Adult emerald ash borers feed on the tree’s foliage causing little or no damage to the tree.

The emerald ash borer was first discovered in the U.S., infesting dead ash trees in Detroit, Michigan, and Windsor, Ontario in 2002. This beetle is responsible for killing millions of ash trees throughout the areas where it is found.

Unlike native beetles that kill stressed or weakened trees as part of the natural nutrient recycling process, the emerald ash borer kills perfectly healthy trees.

Emerald Ash Borer Infestation Damage

New emerald ash borer infestations can be challenging to detect (they usually begin high up in the crown of the tree). By the time you detect signs and symptoms, the tree is already heavily infested, declining in health, and dying. However, if you can identify heavily infested trees, there may be enough time to protect and save lightly infested trees in the area or at least contain the spread. Consider the following signs of the beetle and symptoms of an infestation:

Signs of an emerald ash borer infestation:

Two woodpeckers hunting for emerald ash borer larvae beneath the bark exposing larval galleries

Larval Galleries – S-shaped galleries under the bark.

Exit Holes – D-shaped exit holes up to 1/8 inch wide. The size and shape of the exit holes are significant.  Exit holes wider than 1/8 inch, or round holes rather than flattened on one side (D-shaped), are not emerald ash borer.

Leaf Notches – Adults will feed on ash leaves from the outer edge in, leaving notches in the leaves.

Woodpecker Activity – Woodpeckers will leave holes in the bark, surrounded by light-colored patches, as they probe beneath the bark to feed on the larvae.

Squirrel Activity – Some squirrel species will dig into the bark as they try to feed on the larvae. They leave ragged strips of bark on the trunk or stems, exposing the S-shaped galleries formed by the larvae.

Ash tree symptoms of an emerald ash borer infestation:

Epicormic Shoots (suckers or water sprouts) – When an ash tree has been successfully attacked and is under stress, it can produce epicormic shoots on the trunk, roots, and sometimes in the crown on stems and larger branches.

Bark Splits and Deformities – Infested mature trees will commonly present vertical bark splits over the location of larval galleries. On young trees with thin bark, the area over larval galleries will often dry out and turn pinkish brown while presenting vertical bark splits.

Stress Crops – Trees under severe stress can produce massive seed crops. Unfortunately, under these circumstances, few of the seeds will be viable.

Ash trees produce stress crops when infested and dying from an emerald ash borer attack

Chlorosis – As the infestation progresses, the foliage will turn yellow, wilt, and fall off the tree.

Branch Death – As the tree begins to suffer hydraulic failure, branches will die, lose their leaves, and become brittle.

Crown Thinning – Perhaps the most telling of the symptoms is the way the crown thins from the top down, leaving dead and bare branches exposed as the condition descends the tree.

You can also determine if you may be at high risk of infestation by visiting emeraldashborer.info/documents/MultiState_EABpos.pdf to see if your region or state is under Federal quarantine for the movement of emerald ash borer regulated articles.

If you detect any or a combination of the above signs and symptoms, contact a certified arborist in your area to inspect and confirm your findings. The following link explains ISA certified arborists and how to locate one in your area – 72tree.com/what-is-an-isa-certified-arborist/

Confirmed Emerald Ash Borer Infestation

Native North American ash trees possess almost no natural resistance to the emerald ash borer. Death of infested trees is at or near 100% unless managed very early on for emerald ash borer control. Once you have confirmed an infestation, immediate action should be taken to protect trees in surrounding areas.

• Call the USDA Emerald Ash Borer Hotline at (866) 322-4512 for specialized instruction and guidance (specific to your location)
• Hire an arborist to inspect and treat neighboring trees
• If your tree is beyond saving, remove it immediately
• Prevent spreading an emerald ash borer infestation by having your felled tree chipped (this process is highly effective in eliminating the borer)

Larval stage of the emerald ash borer or agrilus planipennis

Because this killer beetle does not discriminate between sick or healthy ash trees, there is little you can do besides chemical deterrence to prevent an infestation. Preventative measures for this pest should be applied by an ISA certified arborist.

Emerald Ash Borer (Agrilus planipennis)

In this article, you discovered information about the emerald ash borer, signs and symptoms that identify it, and what to do if you confirm an infestation in your ash tree.

By taking immediate action to deal with a potential or confirmed emerald ash borer infestation, you are protecting the ash tree population in your area. Besides saving yourself from likely financial losses when you are forced to take action.

Ignoring the dangers of an emerald ash borer infestation can lead to the destruction of an entire region’s ash tree population, ecosystem, and cause catastrophic damages as dead trees begin to fall.

Sources:
ctpa.org/the-life-stages-of-eab/
ajc.com/lifestyles/environment/invasive-beetle-threatens-georgia-ash-trees-with-devastation/kTjy7UC4LocGRhSkHP7REK/
citybugs.tamu.edu/2015/10/23/recognizing-emerald-ash-borer-damage/
invasive.org/gist/moredocs/agrpla02.pdf
fs.fed.us/aboutus/budget/requests/DDBR428_Emerald_Ash_Borer_report_to_Congress.pdf
cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/pubwarehouse/pdfs/26856.pdf
orkin.com/other/beetles/emerald-ash-borer

This article was first published on: http://www.72tree.com/emerald-ash-borer-tree-damage/

Monday, April 20, 2020

Invasive Tree Species

Tree fungi living off of decomposing heartwood producing mushroom conks

That fungus growing on your tree could kill it and turn it into an extreme hazard. By knowing how to deal with tree fungi, you can help your tree thrive for decades.

72tree.com gathered information on identifying harmful tree fungi, how to get rid of it, and what you can do to prevent it.

How To Treat Tree Fungus

Before you start dowsing your tree with fungicides and other chemical mixtures, you need to identify what type of fungus is growing on your tree and if it can be removed safely.

Mushroom Conks – If you have mushroom conks growing out of your tree trunk, it is a sign that the fungi at work have already penetrated the tree’s defenses and are decaying the heartwood of the tree.

For these mushroom conks to appear, there must be decaying wood within the tree to feed the fungus. This type of inner decay is known as heart rot.

When mushrooms grow from the root flare or in abundance on surface roots, you can be certain that the root system of the tree has been compromised and requires immediate attention.

Treatment: Do not try to remove mushroom conks from a tree, you may inadvertently release billions of spores that can infect surrounding trees and plants. Call a professional tree service to evaluate the extent of the damage to the tree and recommend a course of action.

Lichens – A lichen, or lichenized fungus, is two organisms functioning as one. Lichens comprise a fungus in a symbiotic relationship with an alga and typically appear as a flat rounded leafy structure attached to the bark of a tree.

Tree fungi comprised of a fungus and an alga and harmless to trees

Lichens may appear harmful but are superficial, cosmetic eyesores at best. These organisms do not possess roots and rarely cause any damage to the organism they attach themselves to.

Treatment: If you wish, most lichen species can be eliminated from a tree with a mixture of 6 tablespoons of liquid copper sulfate mixed with 1 gallon of water applied during the tree’s dormant season. When applying this mixture, cover the lichen to the point of runoff.

Before using chemicals to control lichens, read the instructions printed on the label. By following the manufacturer’s recommended directions, you can increase the chemical’s effectiveness while preventing injury to the tree.

Fire Blight – Fire Blight can be caused by bacterial and/or fungal infections. It causes twigs and branches to appear water-soaked, then dark, and finally dry and cracked. Twigs and branches die from the terminal end and take on a burned appearance. Branches may bend or curl, commonly referred to as “shepherd’s crook.” As leaves and fruit die, they remain on the branches.

Treatment: Prune out infected branches (at least 8 inches below the damage) during the spring and summer. Do not prune while the branches are wet, as blight is highly transmissible via splashing water. Sterilize all pruning equipment before and after use on an infected tree.

Chemical control of blight is not always effective and should be used as a preventative measure in healthy trees.

Read more about fire blight prevention at 72tree.com/preventing-fire-blight-tree-disease/

Cankers – Cankers are dead, fungus-infected portions of tree bark on the branches or the trunk. They may appear as dark, open, seething wounds, or sunken, darkened, “wet” areas of bark. Most plant pathogens cannot penetrate tree bark directly. Still, they will colonize bark wounded by wildlife, poor maintenance, or mechanical injury.

Canker diseases can cause extensive damage to trees when they kill enough of the bark to girdle a branch or trunk. The fungus causing the canker is also capable of spreading throughout the tree, by way of the xylem and phloem, eventually appearing in other areas of the tree.

Canker causing tree fungi on tree trunks and branches

Treatment: For cankers found on twigs, and branches, prune the affected twig or branch from the tree. While normal pruning activities should be restricted to the tree’s dormant season, cankers are considered urgent. They can be pruned off the tree at any time of the year.

Note: Sterilize your pruning equipment before and after use on an infected tree. By doing so, you can prevent introducing another pathogen to the already sickened tree, and carrying the illness to another healthy tree.

For small cankers on tree trunks, tracing may help to reduce damage and slow its spread. Cut outside the cankered area into healthy bark, shaping the cut as an ellipse (this will allow the tree to compartmentalize the entire wound over time). Care should be taken to avoid infection of the fresh wound with canker or other pathogens.

For larger cankers on the trunk of a tree, call a professional tree service to evaluate the extent of the damage and recommend a course of action to either treat and save the tree or remove it.

Read more about heart rot and other diseases at 72tree.com/5-tree-pests-diseases-avoid-spring/

Tree Fungus Prevention

Trees have evolved over thousands of years to protect themselves against illness and infestations. They are highly efficient at protecting themselves when they are healthy and thriving. You can aide your tree by:

• Carefully apply fungicides during dry weather and before fungal growth
• Making sure pruning activities are done timely and with sterilized equipment
• Promoting its health throughout the growing season
• Using insecticides to prevent insect infestations
• Removing suckers from surface roots
• Preventing soil compaction on or around the root plate
• Immediately addressing storm damage
• Addressing or removing troubled trees from or around your property

Tip: You can help trees fight fungal attacks and heal themselves by promoting their health. These are some of the things you can do to improve the health of your tree:

• Seasonal Pruning
• Annual Tree Inspections
• Organic Mulch
• Deep Watering (without overwatering)
• Fertilization
• Protect Surface Roots and Trunk from Damage

Tree fungi removal by aggressive pruning

The importance of an annual tree inspection cannot be overstated. Detecting problems in their beginning stages helps you eliminate the existing problems and prevent potential issues throughout the growing season.

Killing Tree Fungus

In this article, you discovered the different fungi that can attack and harm your tree, how to treat it, and prevent it.

By taking swift action to remove fungus-infected parts of a tree and use measures to stop future infections, you are extending the life of your tree, and preventing it from becoming a threat to your property and wellbeing.

When you ignore the signs of fungal infections on your tree, you risk the tree dying and causing catastrophic damages when it eventually succumbs and falls.

Sources:
herbarium.usu.edu/fun-with-fungi/lichens
plantclinic.cornell.edu/factsheets/treecankers.pdf
vegcropshotline.org/article/10-useful-rules-for-fungicide-application/
extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.html?number=C871&title=Fireblight:%20Symptoms,%20Causes,%20and%20Treatment

This article was first published on: http://www.72tree.com/how-to-get-rid-of-tree-fungi/

Monday, March 23, 2020

How To Avoid Invasive Tree Roots Destroying Your Landscape

Invasive tree roots damage landscapes and hardscapes resulting in expensive repairs

Invasive tree roots can destroy your turf, buckle concrete, and quickly become a very costly nuisance. Knowing which tree species to avoid planting and how to deal with aggressive trees already on your property will save you time, money, and stress.

72tree.com gathered information on invasive tree roots, the damages they cause, how to stop them, and which species you should not plant.

What Are Invasive Tree Roots

Invasive tree roots quickly grow in search of water and nutrients, finding their way under walkways, driveways, building foundations, sidewalks, water lines, sewer pipes, etc. As these roots thicken, they can cause these structures to fracture and buckle.

A common trait of invasive plants and tree roots is that they are fast-growing. Once these roots find a water source, they take hold and continue spreading to find more water sources.

Invasive Tree Root Damage

Once invasive tree roots spread across your yard or landscape, all they need is a water source. When that water source is tapped into, the roots thicken and tear up your turf, while breaking through nearly everything they have grown beneath.

Among the most expensive damages, invasive tree roots can cause: when they grow under the foundation of your home.

Note: These roots don’t just break through concrete or asphalt, they can cause the earth surrounding them to heave upward.

Invasive tree roots damaging hardscapes walkways and sidewalks

Read 72tree.com/tree-roots-buckling-concrete-driveway/ to uncover the devastation these roots can cause and ways to repair the damage they cause.

How To Stop Invasive Tree Roots

Don’t plant tree species with invasive roots. If you inherited these trees with your property or were ill-advised when you purchased and planted a tree, here are some of the measures you can take to slow these roots down:

1. Install root barriers to a depth of 18 to 24 inches (the majority of tree roots are found within the top 18 inches of soil). You can install these barriers around young trees or around structures to stop or divert the direction of the roots. When installing barriers, allow enough space for tree roots to form a stable root plate. The root plate generally surrounds the trunk and extends to the tree’s drip line.

2. Root pruning is an option that should be done by an arborist. Pruning tree roots can leave the tree vulnerable to disease and infestation.

3. After planting a tree, provide it with frequent deep waterings to encourage its roots to grow deeper.

4. Plant trees in locations where they can achieve their full growth potential without interfering with structures and landscape features.

5. Make sure the tree you are planting is appropriate for your hardiness zone. Planting outside the tree’s zone may trigger its roots to become aggressive to supply it with enough moisture.

6. Often times, the only solution for invasive root problems is to have the tree removed and the stump ground.

Overgrown invasive tree roots damage landscaping

Invasive Tree Root Species

The following is a brief list of tree species that have displayed invasive root tendencies, are high-maintenance, and short-lived (when compared to similar non-invasive species):

• Aspen (Populus)
• Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides)
• Empress or Princess Tree (Paulownia tomentosa)
• English Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna)
• English Holly (Ilex aquifolium)
• English Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus)
• Golden Chain Tree (Laburnum)
• Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)
• Mimosa (Albizia julibrissin)
• Norway Maple (Acer platanoides)
• Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima)
• Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila)
• Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum)
• Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium)
• Sweet Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua)
• Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)
• Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus)
• Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus altissima)
• Weeping Willow (Salix babylonica)
• White Mulberry (Morus alba)
• White Poplar (Populus alba)

Many of the trees listed above can grow to enormous proportions (in height and width) and likely are not appropriate for small to medium-sized yards and landscapes.

Regardless of the species, you would like to plant, do your homework on how it grows, where it grows, and problems others have had with it. You can also hire an arborist to assess your yard or landscape before planting the tree. This will help you give the tree a healthy beginning.

Read more about planting trees by visiting 72tree.com/tree-planting-guide/

Invasive Tree Roots

In this article, you discovered what invasive tree roots are, the damage they are capable of, what you can do to stop them, and several of the species to avoid.

By addressing invasive tree roots as early as possible, you can avoid significant damages to your property, water supply, sewage line, and your home’s foundation.

When you allow invasive tree roots to grow unchecked, you are inviting them to tear up your turf, destroy structures, and upheave the earth they grow in.

Sources:
mortonarb.org/trees-plants/tree-and-plant-advice/horticulture-care/tree-root-problems
selectree.calpoly.edu/right-tree-right-place#invasive
aces.nmsu.edu/ces/yard/2008/091108.html
extension.tennessee.edu/publications/Documents/SP628.pdf

This article was first published on: http://www.72tree.com/how-to-avoid-invasive-tree-roots-landscape/

Monday, February 24, 2020

When Should I Cut Down A Tree on My Property?

Cut down a dying or dead tree on my property

Does your tree look sick or like it’s going to fall? By knowing the signs of a hazardous tree on your property, you can take action to prevent catastrophic damages and losses.

72tree.com gathered information on the signs of a dead, dying, or dangerous tree, and whether or not it should be removed.

When Is Tree Removal Necessary?

You may need to remove your tree if it:

• Is dead or dying
• Is Rotting or hollow
• Has invasive or destructive roots
• Has been infested and poses a threat to surrounding trees
• Is diseased and could infect other trees or plants
• Poses an imminent threat to people, structures, or vehicles

Trees go through many phases as they mature. When any irregularities are detected, you should contact a professional tree service immediately. Have the tree professionally evaluated and make an informed decision on whether or not to remove the tree.

Is My Tree Dead or Dying?

The answer to that question is: Possibly. A deciduous tree may look dead, when in fact, it may only be dormant. Consider the following when evaluating your tree:

Deciduous Trees – A deciduous tree is one that loses its leaves in the fall and goes into a state of dormancy until the end of the winter season. These trees may look dead while in dormancy but are likely very much alive.

Cut down a deciduous tree on my property when it is dying diseased or dead

You can confirm this by performing a “scratch test” on a smaller branch or twig. If the twig is dead, it will be dry and brittle underneath the bark. A live one will have a shade of green and be moist under the bark.

Evergreen Trees – An evergreen tree maintains its foliage throughout the year. If you notice an excessive loss of foliage or the discoloration of a large portion of the tree, there may be root, sun, or wind damage.

Cut down a diseased evergreen tree on my property

The following are signs of trouble for any tree and should be evaluated by a certified arborist immediately:

• The unusual or untimely loss of foliage
• Sections of the tree failing to leaf out in the spring
• Discoloration or wilting of a section of the tree crown
• New foliage is stunted, wilted, or discolored
• Mushroom conks are growing on the trunk or on surface roots
• Sprouts or suckers growing from the roots of the tree
• Entry or exit holes from boring insects
• Dead branches in the crown
• Sudden shedding of branches
• Your tree has begun to lean
• Neighboring trees are dying suddenly
• Mold or mildew has grown on a significant portion of the foliage
• There is significant damage to foliage from an insect infestation
• Your tree was struck by lightning
• Large portions of bark have been damaged or fallen off the trunk
• A severe storm has stripped your tree of foliage and damaged multiple branches

Cut down a storm damaged tree on my property

Through the life of a tree, it will face many health threats. In most cases, it can overcome those threats and continue thriving. However, when the tree is confronted by multiple threats, its health may decline, allowing some of those threats to damage it severely enough to kill it.

Many of the above signs can be mitigated or completely avoided when detected in their earliest stages. You can accomplish this by having an annual inspection performed on your tree(s) in late winter or early spring.

Read more about identifying tree diseases and trouble at 72tree.com/signs-diseased-tree-dieback-suckers-water-sprouts/

Removing Nuisance Trees from Your Property

Some tree species can become a tremendous nuisance as they mature and thrive. Some of the problems they may cause include:

• Interfering with power lines
• Branches overhanging your house, garage, or neighbor’s property
• Invasive roots breaking foundations, invading septic tanks, or buckling concrete
• Large roots growing along the ground surface
• The tree is self-pruning and begins to shed large limbs (eucalyptus trees do this frequently)

Invasive root systems like those of the aspen species can cause massive amounts of damage in a short amount of time. Read more about invasive root problems at 72tree.com/tree-roots-buckling-concrete-driveway/

In cases where a tree is near or on your property line, arguments and disputes may occur between neighbors. Before taking any action, you will need to determine ownership and/or responsibility of that tree. Read 72tree.com/who-is-responsible-overhanging-tree-branches/ to learn how this is determined.

Do I Need A Tree Removal Permit

Cities and municipalities across the country have tree ordinances in place to protect or preserve their trees. That said, there are cases in which dead trees or trees that pose an imminent threat of falling can be removed immediately and without a permit. However, you will likely be required to document the hazard and the need for removal fully. A certified arborist’s report, in some municipalities, may also be required.

Cut down a dead dying diseased or infested tree on my property with a removal permit

You can hire our arborist, or search for an arborist or verify one’s credentials by visiting treesaregood.org/findanarborist/arboristsearch

Special Trees – Some tree species are vigorously protected in some municipalities, and their removal, for any reason without permission, may result in steep fines, recompense, and even planting new trees of the same or predetermined species, as defined by the tree ordinance. These reasons may include:

• Historical significance
• Age
• Size
• Rare or protected species
• Wildlife refuge
• Trees with a specific diameter at breast height (DBH)

Whenever you have a tree that needs to be removed (for any reason), consult your city’s codes and ordinances to determine whether you need a permit or not. The following may help as well:

• Visit your city’s website and search for tree removal permit information
• Call your city’s arborist or Forestry department
• Hire a professional tree service that can acquire the appropriate permits and do the job.

When it comes to trees, medium and large trees should always be handled by professionals. If you try to cut such a tree down without the proper knowledge and equipment, you may be placing your property and your life in jeopardy.

Removing Trees from Your Property

In this article, you discovered how to determine when a tree is dead, dying, has become a hazard, and if it should be removed.

By taking action when you detect a tree illness, infestation, or damage, you are preserving the safety of your property.

When you delay taking care of sick or wounded trees, you are leaving an open invitation for catastrophic events that can destroy your property and threaten the well-being of you and your loved ones.

Sources:
extension.umd.edu/hgic/topics/how-do-you-decide-when-remove-tree
extension.umn.edu/solve-problem/plant-diseases#tree-and-shrub-diseases-1872363
entomology.ca.uky.edu/ent43
myminnesotawoods.umn.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/MNLawTrees-NuisanceTrees.pdf

This article was first published on: http://www.72tree.com/when-cut-down-tree-my-property/

Monday, January 27, 2020

How To Kill and Stop Tree Stumps from Growing Back

Kill and stop tree stumps from growing sprouts and new trees

Is the tree you cut down trying to grow back from the stump? Many times, when trees get cut down, the stump and roots will continue to send out new growth. Knowing why they do this and what to do with it once the tree is gone can save you loads of time, effort, and money.

72tree.com assembled the following information on why trees grow back after being cut down, how to kill a tree stump, and remove it.

Do Trees Grow Back After Being Cut Down

Yes, they can. That’s why it’s essential to be knowledgeable about tree growth when you need to remove one permanently.

Cut trees with enough stored sugars and nutrients in their roots can produce sprouts from the roots and trunk as a measure of survival and reproduction. The following species will commonly sprout after being cut down:

• Poplars
• Maples
• Lindens
• Boxelder
• Red Oak
• Willows
• Beech
• Ash

When this survival mechanism is triggered, single, or multiple sprouts may appear. If left unabated, these sprouts will grow into trees without having grown a stable root plate, and likely pose a much more immense falling hazard than the original tree.

How to Stop Tree Stumps and Roots from Sprouting

Before you select a method to kill or remove a tree stump, evaluate the potential impact on the environment and immediate surroundings. The following are methods to eliminate tree stumps from sprouting:

Kill and stop cut tree stumps from growing back

Use Fertilizer for Rapid Decay – To accelerate the decaying process of the stump, do the following:

• Cut the stump to soil level
• Drill half-inch to inch-wide holes six to eight inches deep into the stump and aerial roots
• Apply a slow-release fertilizer to the holes and over the stump
• Cover and “mound” with soil

With little to no impact on the environment, this method is highly effective but takes several months to decompose the stump fully.

Note: In this and the following methods, areal roots are the large protruding “anchor” roots at the base of the stump.

Using Epsom or Rock Salt to Kill It – This process is one of the more economical, but takes several months to kill the stump. Apply this method by:

• Acquiring enough Epsom or rock salt to fill several deep holes and cavities in the stump
• Drill half-inch to inch-wide holes six to eight inches deep into the stump and aerial roots
• Pack the holes and any cavities with salt
• Use hot wax or another water-proof sealant to seal the holes and cover the cavities
• Secure a dark plastic tarp or trash bag over and around the stump to keep rain and sunlight out

In six to ten weeks, your tree stump should be dead and breaking apart.

Tip: While table salt will produce similar results, it is very harmful to the soil in the vicinity of the stump. Use only 100% Epsom or rock salt with no added ingredients.

Cover The Stump To Kill It – You can slowly kill your tree stump with this method, and it’s free.

• Secure a dark plastic tarp or trash bag over and around the stump to keep rain and sunlight out

Without adding any chemicals or salt, this method will take up to six months for the stump to die and start to decay.

While the tree is covered, there should be no growth. However, if sprouts do appear while the stump is still alive, cut them off.

Burn The Stump – Burning the stump is an effective way to remove it after it has died. The following steps will help you safely burn and remove your tree stump:

Kill and stop tree stumps from growing back using fire

• Drill several half-inch to inch-wide holes six to eight inches deep into the stump and aerial roots. The deeper you can drill into the stump will ensure that it burns to the roots.
• Pour enough kerosene into the holes to thoroughly saturate the stump.
• Build a fire on top of the stump by placing scrap wood, twigs, and small logs on it. As the fire burns down, add more wood as necessary to keep the fire ablaze.
• When the stump has burned away, remove the ashes and replace them with soil.

As with any controlled burn, never leave it unattended. Keep a hose or fire extinguisher on hand in case the fire gets out of hand or begins to spread.

NOTE: Before using this method, consult your municipal ordinances to ensure that your controlled burn is legal, for more information call 411.

Tip: Turn the stump burning into a “bonfire” and invite friends and family over for an outside gathering.

Grinding a tree stump to kill and stop the tree from growing back

Grind The Stump – Grinding the stump allows you to chop it up and remove it immediately. This method requires protective clothing and equipment and some knowledge of machinery operation and safety. The following steps will help you safely remove your tree stump:

• Use a chainsaw to cut the stump as close to the ground as possible, leaving a level surface
• Grind the stump and any areal roots until fully ground up
• Remove the wood chips (use them for mulch or discard them)
• Fill the hole with fresh soil

Keep children and pets at a safe distance while the stump grinder is in use.

Note: Before operating this or any other machinery, refer to the operating manual to ensure its proper and safe use. There may be safety features that you are not aware of on the machine.

Call A Professional Tree Service – Take all of the stress, equipment, time, and chemicals out of the process by calling a professional tree service to come out and remove your tree stump. They have specialized equipment and experience to remove your tree stump quickly and safely.

Stop Your Tree Stump from Growing Back

In this article, you discovered why trees continue sending up sprouts after being cut down, how to kill a tree stump, and how to completely remove one.

By killing and removing your tree stump, you are preventing sprouts from growing and creating a hazard to surrounding structures and people.

Allowing a tree to re-grow in this manner is significantly dangerous. These new trees grow without establishing a firm root plate and may topple as they increase in size without warning.

Sources:
umass.edu/urbantree/factsheets/26killastump.html
ucanr.edu/blogs/blogcore/postdetail.cfm?postnum=20662
warnell.uga.edu/sites/default/files/publications/Stump%20Removal%20pub_14-8.pdf

This article was first published on: http://www.72tree.com/how-to-kill-stop-tree-stumps-growing-back/

Monday, December 16, 2019

Caring for and Planting a Potted Christmas Tree

Decorated indoor potted christmas tree

With some simple steps, you can avoid significantly damaging your potted Christmas tree while it’s in your home. Likewise, by taking a few essential measures into consideration, your potted Christmas tree will thrive outside for years to come.

72tree.com assembled the following list of care and planting tips for your potted Christmas tree.

Potted Christmas Tree Selection

Responsible tree care begins with your tree selection. The following will help you get the right tree for your holiday enjoyment and avoid transporting a potential infestation or tree disease to your landscape:

• Some highly sought after species for potted Christmas trees include Fraser fir, white pine, and Norway, white and Colorado blue spruces.
• The species should be adapted to your USDA hardiness zone
• The root ball or soil in the pot should be moist
• The tree should appear sturdy with even growth
• There should be no signs of disease or infestation
• Little to no needles should fall off the tree when shaken
• Branches and needles should be pliable when run through your hand
• Look for potted trees that are kept outside (these trees should be in a state of dormancy)

Selecting a potted christmas tree to plant after the holidays

If the tree is purchased from a climate-controlled nursery, avoid trees with new growth at the end of its stems. This new growth (triggered by the warmth indoors) will appear bright green. It will not have time to harden before being planted outside and exposed to winter temperatures after the holiday.

Visit 72tree.com/trees-shrubs-usda-hardiness-zone-map/ to learn more about the hardiness zones and how to determine your precise zone.

Tip: Look for trees in the 4 to 5-foot range. Since these trees still have their roots and surrounding soil, they will be much heavier than live cut trees. The taller the tree, the more roots and soil are required. Thus, the shorter the tree, the more manageable it will be during transport and planting.

How To Bring Your Potted Christmas Tree Indoors

Now that you have the perfect tree for your holiday celebration, use the following steps to acclimate the tree to come indoors:

Garage Your Tree – When you arrive home, leave your tree in the garage for two to three days. This will allow the tree to get used to warmer temperatures and avoid stressing it.

Stressed trees are highly susceptible to successful insect and disease attacks.

Digging A Hole for the Tree – While the tree is acclimating to go indoors, take some time to prepare its planting location outdoors. Take the following into consideration:

Digging a hole for a potted christmas tree

Know the species height and width at maturity. Your tree is likely capable of reaching heights of 80 to 100-feet and width of 20-feet or more. Choose a location away from power lines and at least 30-feet from any structures or paved areas in your landscape.

Now that you have a location, dig a hole 3-feet across and as deep as the root ball or pot. Keep the dug up soil in the garage (protected from freezing), fill the hole with straw, and cover it with wooden planks. This will help you avoid significant delays in case the ground freezes.

Inspect Your Tree – Once acclimated, thoroughly inspect your tree once more for signs of insect infestation before bringing it indoors.

Some of the potential insect passengers you may find include:

• Aphids
• Bark Beetles
• Scale
• Lanternflies
• Stink Bugs

Visit 72tree.com/preventing-eliminating-christmas-tree-bugs/ to read more about Christmas tree bug control and prevention.

Timing and Duration – Potted Christmas trees should be brought indoors as close to your holiday celebration as possible. Unlike cut Christmas trees, potted trees will react to the warmer temperature indoors and begin to exit dormancy.

From the time your tree is brought indoors, you have about ten days before you will need to get it back outside. While your tree is indoors, observe the following to promote its health:

• Place the tree in a location far from heat sources, including fireplaces, vents, portable heaters, stoves, etc.
• Use led lights on the tree to avoid drying it out. If conventional light strings are used, be sure to limit the time they are turned on.
• Water the tree daily with 30 to 40 ice cubes placed on the root ball or the soil in the pot.
• Help the tree remain in dormancy by putting it in a cooler room with an abundance of natural light.

Tip: If you detect any new growth or signs of sprouting at any time, remove all of the decorations and lighting. It’s time to get it outside.

Potted Christmas tree with new bright green growth

How To Take Your Potted Christmas Tree Outdoors

The same way you acclimated your tree to come indoors, you will need to acclimate it to go outdoors. You can accomplish this by removing all decorations and lighting, then moving it back to the garage for two to three days.

Planting Your Christmas Tree

The following steps will help you successfully plant your acclimated tree:

• Uncover the hole you previously dug and remove the straw
• Move the saved soil back to the side of the hole
• Fill the hole with water, let the water soak into the ground, and repeat
• Move the tree to the edge of the hole and gently lay it on its side (with the top of the tree pointing away from the hole)
• Carefully remove the pot (keep the soil intact)
• If the root ball is wrapped in burlap, leave the burlap on for now
• Slide the tree towards the center of the hole, so the root ball is at the center of the hole
• Raise the tree into its position (remove the burlap now)
• Loosen the soil in the root ball and free any circling roots
• Fill in the hole making sure the root flare does not get buried
• For stability, it may be necessary to stake the tree for the first 6 months
• Water the tree and add a 3-inch layer of organic mulch around the entire base without covering any part of the trunk

Potted christmas tree for indoor holiday celebration

For more tips and guidance on successfully planting a tree, read 72tree.com/beginners-guide-tree-planting/

Note: If the ground has frozen, there is snow accumulation, or if your tree sprouted new growth and began to bud, don’t plant it just yet. Keep it and continue caring for it in the garage until the threat of freezing temperatures has passed.

Potted Christmas Tree Care And Planting

In this article, you discovered what it takes to care for a potted Christmas tree and plant it when your holiday celebrations are over.

By properly acclimating and caring for your potted tree, you can keep it from harm’s way and enjoy its beauty for years to come.

By neglecting the needs of your potted Christmas tree, it will likely end up stressed and suffering permanent damage.

Sources:
content.ces.ncsu.edu/selection-and-care-of-living-christmas-trees
canr.msu.edu/news/living_christmas_trees_another_real_tree_option
bbg.org/news/is_a_potted_christmas_tree_a_good_idea

This article was first published on: http://www.72tree.com/caring-planting-potted-christmas-tree/

Monday, November 25, 2019

Common Maple Tree Diseases, Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention

Stop your maple tree from needlessly dying. If caught in time, diseases that attack maples can be treated with success.

72tree.com of Alpharetta Ga, assembled the following list of diseases that affect maple trees, how to identify, treat, and prevent them.

Why do My Maple Tree Leaves Have Spots?

One of the easiest ways to detect maple tree diseases is through irregularities in shape or size, spots, and/or blemishes on the tree’s foliage.

The following diseases may cause spots to appear on your maple tree’s foliage:

Leaf Spot (Phyllosticta minima) – This fungal infection causes round spots about a quarter of an inch in diameter to appear on leaves. These spots will have a pronounced purple border and blackish dots in the center of the spot (fungal fruiting structures).

Treatment: Before fall, prune dead twigs, stems, and branches. Collect all clippings and destroy them (burning them is highly recommended) to prevent the spread of the fungus.

Have the tree evaluated to determine the extent of the infection and whether further action like using fungicides should be taken to protect your tree and surrounding landscape.

Maple tree infected with leaf spot phyllosticta minima disease

NOTE: Sanitize all equipment, including gloves and protective clothing that come in contact with an infected tree and its foliage.

Anthracnose (Aureobasidium apocryptum or Discula – Gloeosporium) – Anthracnose is a fungal infection that causes purple or brown streaks to occur alongside and between leaf veins. In some maple species, drought and heat stress can produce similar symptoms. You can confirm an anthracnose infection by locating small, brown fungal fruiting structures near the veins of affected leaves.

Treatment: The same measures and precautions for leaf spot should be used in the treatment of anthracnose.

NOTE: Anthracnose can lead to severe defoliation during a wet spring season.

Root Rot (Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma lucidum, or Laetiporus sulfureus) – Once a fungal infection embeds itself in the trunk or the roots of a maple tree, there are three types of symptoms to watch for:

• Foliage in the entire crown or a section of it may suffer from chlorosis, wilt, die and eventually fall. This happens as the fungi cause hydraulic failure within the roots, trunk, and branches.

• Fungal fruiting structures (mushroom conks) will appear from late spring to mid-fall. For these structures to form, there must be rotting organic material within the tree.

Maple tree root rot with mushroom conks diseased and dying

• Large black ants known as carpenter ants will make a nest for their colony within trees that suffer from heart rot. These ants do not burrow through heartwood, they remove the tissues rotting and softened from the infection.

Treatment: Once root rot or heart rot has been confirmed, have the tree professionally removed as quickly as possible.

NOTE: The presence of carpenter ants and fungal fruiting structures only occur after significant damage has been done to the tree. When the affected tree is within striking distance of your home, places where people congregate, or other structures and vehicles, the situation should be treated as an emergency.

Galls – These spots are irregular growths or swellings that occur from a reaction to tissue feeding or egg-laying by various species of mites and insects (commonly mistaken for fungal infection).

Maple tree disease galls formed on the top side of a leaf

Galls appear in various ways. Each mite or insect species produces a distinctive gall shape and can range from wart-like bumps to felt-like patches to spindle-shaped protrusions. Galls develop in the spring, and once formed, the pest remains protected within the structure. Arborists can often identify which mite or insect has infested your tree by the shape and appearance of the galls.

Treatment: Leaf galls are relatively innocuous and rarely result in any long term damage to the tree. Applications of pesticides are relatively ineffective, as the pests are protected within the gall structure.

The most effective manner of gall removal is to handpick and destroy affected foliage before exit holes form and allow the pest(s) to move on. If the presence of galls is overwhelming, hire a professional tree service to evaluate the situation and recommend a course of action.

Maple Tree Disease Prevention

Maple tree disease prevention begins with good tree care practices. The healthier your tree is, the more vigorously it can fight back against diseases and infestations.

However, when the tree’s defenses fail, here are steps to prevent the disease or infestation from infecting surrounding trees:

• Prune affected limbs (before leaf-drop)
• Burn all pruned limbs and foliage
• Always sanitize pruning equipment after use on an infected tree
• Avoid tracking soil from around infected trees to areas around uninfected trees (many fungi and other pathogens thrive in the soil). Clean boots, protective clothing, tools, and equipment before leaving an infested area
• Replant resistant species after tree removal
• Avoid planting maple trees in areas with a history of tree diseases
• Have annual tree inspections and soil testing performed to detect any issues early on.

Black Spots on Maple Leaves

In this article, you discovered how to identify diseases that cause spots on maple tree leaves, how to treat them, and how to prevent them.

Prevent the decline of your maple tree by knowing what to do when a fungus or pathogen begins showing signs of infection.

Your choice to ignore signs that your tree is diseased or in decline can result in catastrophic fungal outbreaks to your landscape, or costly damages to your property when the tree falls.

Sources:
extension.psu.edu/maple-diseases
hgic.clemson.edu/factsheet/maple-diseases-insect-pests/
pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/host-disease/maple-acer-spp-verticillium-wilt

This article was first published on: http://www.72tree.com/maple-tree-diseases-symptoms-treatment-prevention/